4. False. Photosynthesis is a process of nature in which green plants use energy from the sun to manufacture carbohydrates out of water and carbon dioxide. Only those organisms which possess chlorophyll (green pigment) are able to carry on the process of photosynthesis.
6. True. Chlorophyll is the green pigment in organisms such as plants that enables them to carry on the process of photosynthesis.
9. True. Bacteria and blue-green algae (or cyanobacteria) belong to the Monera kingdom of organisms. They differ from all other organisms in that their more primitive cell structures lack a nuclear membrane as well as other membrane-bound organelles. They are called prokaryotes. All other organisms are eukaryotes, organisms with cells that have distinct nuclei surrounded by nuclear membranes as well as a variety of other well-defined membranous organelles. Organelles are specialized parts of cells (such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and endoplasmic reticulum) performing functions analogous to those of organs in multicellular plants and animals.
10. b. A recently developed coliform and E. coli analytical method makes use of the fact coliform bacteria react with o-nitrophenyl-B-d-galacto-pyranoside (ONPG) to form a visible yellow or green color; and E. coli reacts with 4-methylumbelliferyl-B-d-glucuronide (MUG) to produce visible fluorescence under long wave ultraviolet light. By incorporating these chemicals along with suitable growth medium in test tubes to be inoculated with aliquots of the water sample and then incubated at a suitable temperature, both total coliform and E. coli can be easily and accurately detected within 24 hours.