1.      "Void volume" refers to the spaces between particles in a resin bed or salt particles in a brine tank. (T or F)

2.      The larger the resin or salt particle size, the greater the void volume. (T or F)

3.      Salt efficiency in ion exchange softening and the quality of water produced by the softener are dependent upon:

a)      the amount of salt used per cubic foot of resin in each regeneration;

b)      the concentration (strength) of the salt solution as it reaches the resin bed itself; and/or

c)      the rate at which the brine solution flows through and makes contact with the bed of cation exchange resin.

4.      As coarse salt particles dissolve and the particle size is reduced, the void volume increases. (T or F)

5.      Dehydrating ion exchange resin causes the beads to:

a)      shrink

b)      swell

c)      turn green in color.

6.      The pH of brine is generally of little or no concern in the operation of a residential ion exchange water softener. (T or F)

7.      Resin bed channeling improves the softening capacity of the softener. (T or F)

8.      The rinse cycle is used to overcome resin bed channeling in a down flow softening unit. (T or F)

9.      A Demand Initiated Regeneration (DIR) water softener is equipped with a flow meter or hardness sensor which automatically initiates the regeneration process after processing a predetermined volume (gallons) of water or based on a sensor reading representing water hardness. (T or F)

10.  If water hardness remains constant, DIR and time clock water softeners, each with one cubic foot of resin and each set at the same salt dosage per regeneration, will utilize approximately the same quantity of salt in softening water for a typical household. (T or F)