Certification Action Line features questions and answers typical of those appearing in Water Quality Association (WQA) certification examinations. Some answers may not satisfy everyone of every condition.
1. Calculating the total amount of bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxide divided by the total anions in water and multiplied by 100 will yield the water”s _______.
c) percentage of carbon
d) percentage of alkalinity
2. Total mineral acidity (TMA) of water is contributed by anions of _______.
b) chlorides and sulfates
d) b and c
3. Sodium leakage causes free mineral acidity (FMA) to be different from total mineral acidity (TMA) in cation exchange portion of deionization.
4. The higher the percentage of alkalinity, the (lower or higher) the capacity and the (lower or higher) the leakage of sodium will be from cation resins operating in the hydrogen form.
5. The higher the percentage total mineral acidity (TMA) of total anions in the water analysis, the (lower or higher) the capacity and the (lower or higher) the leakage of sodium will be for cation resins operating in the hydrogen form.
6. Conductivity devices are more accurate for measuring (a or b) than for measuring (a or b).
a) values of total dissolved solids (TDS)
b) changes in TDS
7. Water with a pH less than 7 is likely to contain high amounts of dissolved ______.
c) carbon dioxide
8. Free carbon dioxide in water will usually act as the following ion in ion exchange reactions.
9. Water temperature in ion exchange reactions _______.
a) affects the speed of reaction or exchange
b) affects the backwash bed expansion
c) both a and b
d) none of the above
10. With high water temperature, silica removal with ion exchange _______.
c) is not affected