WASHINGTON, DC, Dec. 19, 2014 -- Today, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the first national regulations to provide for the safe disposal of coal combustion residuals (coal ash) from coal-fired power plants. The final rule establishes safeguards to protect communities from coal ash impoundment failures and establishes safeguards to prevent groundwater contamination and air emissions from coal ash disposal.
EPA has been studying the effects of coal ash disposal on the environment and public health for many years. For example, in the wake of the failure of the TVA coal ash pond in the city of Kingston, Tenn., (see "Coal ash spill releases 2.6M pounds of arsenic, other toxic pollutants into Emory River"), the Agency began a multi-year effort to help ensure the safety of the nation's coal ash disposal facilities, including assessing more than 500 facilities across the country.
Improperly constructed or managed coal ash disposal units have been linked to nearly 160 cases of harm to surface or groundwater or to the air. EPA carefully evaluated more than 450,000 comments on the proposed rule, testimony from eight public hearings and information gathered from three notices soliciting comment on new data and analyses. The first federal requirements for impoundments and landfills to address these risks include:
- Reducing the risk of catastrophic failure by requiring regular inspections of the structural safety of surface impoundments
- Restrictions on the location of new surface impoundments and landfills so they cannot be built in sensitive areas such as wetlands and earthquake zones
- Protecting groundwater by requiring monitoring, immediate cleanup of contamination and closure of unlined surface impoundments that are polluting groundwater
- Protecting communities using fugitive dust controls to reduce windblown coal ash dust
- Requiring liner barriers for new units and proper closure of surface impoundments and landfills that will no longer receive coal combustion residuals
In response to comments received on the proposal, the final rule makes a number of changes by providing greater clarity on technical requirements for coal ash landfills and surface impoundments under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the nation's primary law for regulating solid waste.
Implementation of these technical requirements will be reported through comprehensive and regular disclosure to states and communities to enable them to monitor and oversee these requirements. The rule requires that power plant owners and operators provide detailed information to citizens and states to fully understand how their communities may be impacted.
The rule sets out new transparency requirements, including recordkeeping and reporting requirements, as well as the requirement for each facility to post specific information to a publicly-accessible website. This will provide the public with information such as annual groundwater monitoring results as well as corrective action reports, coal ash fugitive dust control plans and closure completion notifications.
This final rule also supports the responsible recycling of coal ash by distinguishing safe, beneficial use from disposal. In 2012, almost 40 percent of all coal ash produced was recycled (beneficially used), rather than disposed. Beneficial use of coal ash can produce positive environmental, economic and performance benefits such as reduced use of virgin resources, lower greenhouse gas emissions, reduced cost of coal ash disposal, and improved strength and durability of materials.